hanadoodles asked: How do you say underwear in latin? I've seen "subucula" but upon examining the definition it seems to specifically refer to a shirt worn under a tunic, etc. Can it also mean our modern definition of underwear?
You are correct about its usual Classical definition. What we have here is an example of how some of the more modern writers have taken some of these older words and given the words newer meanings. Other examples are crustulum (“small pastry”) for our “cookie,” virtualis (“pertaining to virtus”) for the modern sense of “virtual,” and scientia (“knowledge”) for our “science.” Although Latin has plenty of ways of forming new words, writers of Latin generally have not been particularly fond of coining new ones. Giving new meanings to words that already existed seems to have been preferred.
At any rate, while subucula does have a usual Classical definition, the form of the word itself allows it to have a broader meaning. The sub- is “under,” the u- seems to have a meaning of “dress” or “clothe” or “wear” (compare it to the applicable part in exuere, “to take off,” and induere, “to put on”), and the -cula suffix indicates a means or instrument (“a thing that does” something). So, sub-u-cula = “under-wear-thing,” basically. That might have been part of the reasoning for using the word for our “underwear.”
Morgan’s Lexicon has other suggestions for “underwear”:
.grmt underwear / Unterwäsche: lintea n. pl. [Soc. Lat.] — Unterkleid (undergarment, slip, petticoat): tunica interior; hypocamisium* [Kirsch]; hypodytes* [Kirsch]; subterindumentum* [Soc. Lat.] (Helf.) ]] subucula, vestis subsuta (Lev.)
.grmt underwear: lingerie / indusia pl, vestis intima feminarum (Lev.)
.grmt underwear: long underwear / femoralia, feminalia [Alb. II]
.grmt underwear: panty-hose / tibialia bracaria [Eichenseer] (Helf.)
.grmt underwear: slip / Unterrock: tunica interior; subtunica+ [Latham]; hypozônium [Soc. Lat.] (Helf.) ]] hypozônium [Alb. II] < Lidell-Scott: “upozwnh, girdle … dim. upozwnion, Gloss.”
.grmt underwear vestes intimae (v. interiores), vestimenta intima (v. interiores), intima corporis velamenta (Eg. L.D.I. 105)
.grmt underwear: lingerie vestes intimae muliebres
.grmt underwear: slip (woman’s undergarment) tunica muliebris interior (Helf.: tunica muliebris)
I hope that helps!